Available on-demand - F.EL04.19.20
Influence of Solvent Properties on the Morphology of Ultra-Thin Tin Monoxide Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Energy Storage Applications
Seán Kavanagh1,2,3,Sonia Jaskaniec3,João Coelho3,Sean Ryan3,Valeria Nicolosi3
Imperial College London1,University College London2,Trinity College Dublin3
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, especially those with controlled size and shape, have attracted significant attention over the last decade, due to their enhanced performance in comparison to their bulk counterparts.1–3 One such chemical compound is tin monoxide (SnO), whose layered crystal structure renders it amenable to the fabrication of 2D architectures.
SnO has demonstrated promising performance in many relevant applications, including thin-film transistors,4–6photocatalysis,7 gas sensing8 and, primarily, energy storage - as next-generation battery anode materials.9–11 However, the synthesis of SnO nanomaterials with controlled morphology still poses a considerable challenge in the field.9,12–17 In this work, we provide a comprehensive study of the complex relationship between wet chemistry synthesis conditions and resulting nanoparticle morphology. The solvent nature is observed to strongly influence the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth in solution, and thus the final morphological and electrochemical properties.
Extensive characterization of the precipitate nanomaterial has been performed, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), in order to comprehensively describe the solvent-morphology dependence. Furthermore, high-level electronic structure theory, including dispersion corrections to account for Van der Waal’s effects, were employed to augment our understanding of the underlying chemical mechanisms. Using supercell calculations, electronic vacuum alignment and surface energies were determined, allowing the prediction of the thermodynamically-favored crystal shape (Wulff construction) and surface-weighted work function, important parameters for battery performance. Finally, the synthesized nanomaterials were tested as battery materials, illustrating the impact of particle morphology on electrochemical performance.
Our results reveal promising pathways to the controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with tailored morphologies for enhanced performance in specific applications.
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