3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing and solid freeform fabrication, is an approach involving additive layer-by-layer fabrication of a three- dimensional structure through selective joining of material; processing of the structure is directed by a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Unlike conventional methods, 3D printing techniques may enable the development of structures with well-defined, high resolution, small-scale features and multiple functions. In recent years, 3D printing techniques, including fused deposition modeling, lithography-based apparatus, selective laser sintering, and laser induced forward transfer, have been used to prepare both passive and active medical devices. For example, 3D printing of shape memory materials may enable fabrication of smart medical devices that combine detection and actuation functions. Current challenges associated with the use of 3D printing for medical device fabrication include (a) the development of novel materials that can be processed rapidly, reproducibly, and with high resolution, (b) the development of novel materials with appropriate biocompatibility over the anticipated lifetime of the medical device, (c) the development of novel materials with appropriate mechanical and chemical properties over the over the anticipated lifetime of the medical device. This symposium will focus on the development of new types of materials for 3D printing of passive and active medical devices as well as applications of 3D printed medical devices.